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περὶ πολλοῦ ἂν ποιησαίμην, ὦ ἄνδρες, τὸ τοιούτους ὑμᾶς ἐμοὶ δικαστὰς περὶ τούτου τοῦ πράγματος γενέσθαι, οἷοίπερ ἂν ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς εἴητε τοιαῦτα πεπονθότες·
I would greatly value your being the kind of jurors in this case as you would be towards yourselves if you had suffered such problems. (1.01)

articular infinitive | correlatives
εἰ τὴν αὐτὴν γνώμην περὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἔχοιτε, ἥνπερ περὶ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν, οὐκ ἂν εἴη ὅστις οὐκ ἐπὶ τοῖς γεγενημένοις ἀγανακτοίη, ἀλλὰ πάντες ἂν περὶ τῶν τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐπιτηδευόντων τὰς ζημίας μικρὰς ἡγοῖσθε.
if you had the same feelings about others as about yourselves, not one of you but would be indignant at what has been done; you would all regard the penalties appointed for those who resort to such practices as too mild. (1.01)

future unreal conditionals
περὶ τούτου γὰρ μόνου τοῦ ἀδικήματος καὶ ἐν δημοκρατίᾳ καὶ ὀλιγαρχίᾳ ἡ αὐτὴ τιμωρία τοῖς ἀσθενεστάτοις πρὸς τοὺς τὰ μέγιστα δυναμένους ἀποδέδοται, ὥστε τὸν χείριστον τῶν αὐτῶν τυγχάνειν τῷ βελτίστῳ·
for in the case of this crime alone, under both democracy and oligarchy, the same requital is accorded to the weakest against the strongest, so that the lowest gets the same treatment as the highest. (1.02)

ὥστε | result clauses with infinitive
ἡγοῦμαι δέ, ὦ ἄνδρες, τοῦτό με δεῖν ἐπιδεῖξαι, ὡς ἐμοίχευεν Ἐρατοσθένης τὴν γυναῖκα τὴν ἐμὴν
But I take it, sirs, that what I have to show is that Eratosthenes had an intrigue with my wife (1.04)

ὡς
οὔτε χρημάτων ἕνεκα ἔπραξα ταῦτα, ἵνα πλούσιος ἐκ πένητος γένωμαι
I have not acted thus for the sake of money, so as to raise myself from poverty to wealth (1.04)

secondary purpose clauses with the subjunctive
τὸν μὲν ἄλλον χρόνον οὕτω διεκείμην ὥστε μήτε λυπεῖν μήτε λίαν ἐπ’ ἐκείνῃ εἶναι ὅ τι ἂν ἐθέλῃ ποιεῖν,
For some time I was disposed neither to vex her nor to leave her too free to do just as she pleased (1.06)

result clauses with infinitive | ὥστε | present general relative clauses | μή
ἐφύλαττόν τε ὡς οἷόν τε ἦν, καὶ προσεῖχον τὸν νοῦν ὥσπερ εἰκὸς ἦν.
I kept a watch on her as far as possible with such observation of her as was reasonable. (1.06)

ὥσπερ | ὡς
πρῶτον μὲν οὖν, ὦ ἄνδρες, (δεῖ γὰρ καὶ ταῦθ’ ὑμῖν διηγήσασθαι) οἰκίδιον ἔστι μοι διπλοῦν, ἴσα ἔχον τὰ ἄνω τοῖς κάτω κατὰ τὴν γυναικωνῖτιν καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἀνδρωνῖτιν.
First, gentlemen (for I must explain this too), I have a house on two stories, equal on the top and bottom floors, with the women's quarters upstairs and the men's quarters downstairs. (1.09)

the genitive of touch after ἅπτομαι | καί as also/too
ἵνα δὲ μή, ὁπότε λοῦσθαι δέοι, κινδυνεύῃ κατὰ τῆς κλίμακος καταβαίνουσα, ἐγὼ μὲν ἄνω διῃτώμην, αἱ δὲ γυναῖκες κάτω.
So that my wife did not endanger herself going down the stairs when he needed washing, I lived upstairs and the women lived downstairs. (1.09)

μέν…δέ... | negative | the optative in historic indefinite clauses | secondary purpose clauses with the subjunctive
καὶ οὕτως ἤδη συνειθισμένον ἦν, ὥστε πολλάκις ἡ γυνὴ ἀπῄει κάτω καθευδήσουσα ὡς τὸ παιδίον, ἵνα τὸν τιτθὸν αὐτῷ διδῷ καὶ μὴ βοᾷ.
And we were so used to this arrangement that my wife often went downstairs to sleep with the child, to breastfeed it and stop it crying. (1.10)

result clauses with indicative | the future participle expressing purpose | ὡς | ὥστε | secondary purpose clauses with the subjunctive | negative
οὕτως ἠλιθίως διεκείμην, ὥστε ᾤμην τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ γυναῖκα πασῶν σωφρονεστάτην εἶναι τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει.
And it went on like that for some time, and I never suspected a thing, but was so foolish as to think that my wife was the best-behaved in the city. (1.11)

result clauses with indicative | the accusative and infinitive
προϊόντος δὲ τοῦ χρόνου, ὦ ἄνδρες, ἧκον μὲν ἀπροσδοκήτως ἐξ ἀγροῦ, μετὰ δὲ τὸ δεῖπνον τὸ παιδίον ἐβόα καὶ ἐδυσκόλαινεν ὑπὸ τῆς θεραπαίνης ἐπίτηδες λυπούμενον, ἵνα ταῦτα ποιῇ·
Time went on, gentlemen, and I came back unexpectedly from the fields. After dinner, the child was screaming and fretting because it was being annoyed on purpose by the maidservant to do that. (1.11)

the genitive absolute | secondary purpose clauses with the subjunctive
ἐδυσκόλαινεν ὑπὸ τῆς θεραπαίνης ἐπίτηδες λυπούμενον, ἵνα ταῦτα ποιῇ·
the child started crying in a peevish way, as the servant-girl was annoying it on purpose to make it so behave; (1.11)

secondary purpose clauses with the subjunctive
καὶ ἐγὼ τὴν γυναῖκα ἀπιέναι ἐκέλευον καὶ δοῦναι τῷ παιδίῳ τὸν τιτθόν, ἵνα παύσηται κλᾶον.
So I bade my wife go and give the child her breast, to stop its howling. (1.12)

secondary purpose clauses with the subjunctive
μηδεμιᾷ πολυπραγμοσύνῃ προσεληλυθέναι με νόμιζε πρὸς σέ
Do not think it is from any meddlesomeness that I have approached you (1.15)

prohibition | negative
μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα, ὦ ἄνδρες, χρόνου μεταξὺ διαγενομένου καὶ ἐμοῦ πολὺ ἀπολελειμμένου τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ κακῶν, προσέρχεταί μοί τις πρεσβῦτις ἄνθρωπος, ὑπὸ γυναικὸς ὑποπεμφθεῖσα ἣν ἐκεῖνος ἐμοίχευεν, ὡς ἐγὼ ὕστερον ἤκουον·
After this, sirs, an interval occurred in which I was left quite unaware of my own injuries; I was then accosted by a certain old female, who was secretly sent by a woman with whom that man was having an intrigue, as I heard later. (1.15)

ὡς | the genitive absolute
ἐὰν οὖν λάβῃς τὴν θεράπαιναν τὴν εἰς ἀγορὰν βαδίζουσαν καὶ διακονοῦσαν ὑμῖν καὶ βασανίσῃς, ἅπαντα πεύσῃ.
If, therefore, you take the servant-girl who goes to market and waits on you, and torture her, you will learn all. (1.16)

future real conditionals
ψεύσῃ δὲ μηδέν, ἀλλὰ πάντα τἀληθῆ λέγε.
Tell no lies, but speak the whole truth. (1.18)

negative | prohibition
ὅπως τοίνυν ταῦτα μηδεὶς ἀνθρώπων πεύσεται· εἰ δέ μή, οὐδέν σοι κύριον ἔσται τῶν πρὸς ἔμ’ ὡμολογημένων.
Well now, see that nobody in the world gets knowledge of this; otherwise, nothing in your arrangement with me will hold good. (1.21)

ὅπως | εἰ δὲ μή | prevention | negative
ἐγὼ γὰρ οὐδὲν δέομαι λόγων, ἀλλὰ τὸ ἔργον φανερὸν γενέσθαι, εἴπερ οὕτως ἔχει.
And I require that you show me their guilt in the very act; I want no words, but manifestation of the fact, if it really is so. (1.22)

present real conditionals
καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα διεγένοντο ἡμέραι τέσσαρες ἢ πέντε, ὡς ἐγὼ μεγάλοις ὑμῖν τεκμηρίοις ἐπιδείξω.
Then came an interval of four or five days as I shall bring strong evidence to show. (1.22)

ὡς
κἀγὼ εἰπὼν ἐκείνῃ ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τῆς θύρας, καταβὰς σιωπῇ ἐξέρχομαι,
Bidding her look after the door, I descended and went out in silence (1.23)

indirect command
τοὺς μὲν ἔνδον κατέλαβον, τοὺς δὲ οὐκ ἐπιδημοῦντας ηὗρον
I found some of them at home, while others were out of town. (1.23)

μέν…δέ...
καὶ δᾷδας λαβόντες ἐκ τοῦ ἐγγύτατα καπηλείου εἰσερχόμεθα, ἀνεῳγμένης τῆς θύρας καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς ἀνθρώπου παρεσκευασμένης.
Then we got torches from the nearest shop, and went in; the door was open, as the girl had it in readiness. (1.24)

the genitive absolute
ὤσαντες δὲ τὴν θύραν τοῦ δωματίου οἱ μὲν πρῶτοι εἰσιόντες ἔτι εἴδομεν αὐτὸν κατακείμενον παρὰ τῇ γυναικί, οἱ δ’ ὕστερον ἐν τῇ κλίνῃ γυμνὸν ἑστηκότα.
We pushed open the door of the bedroom, and the first of us to enter were in time to see him lying down by my wife; those who followed saw him standing naked on the bed. (1.25)

μέν…δέ... | circumstantial participles
ἠντεβόλει δὲ καὶ ἱκέτευε μὴ ἀποκτεῖναι ἀλλ’ ἀργύριον πράξασθαι
Then he besought and implored me not to kill him, but to exact a sum of money. (1.25)

negative | infinitives
ἐμοῦ τοίνυν, ὦ ἄνδρες, οἱ μὲν νόμοι οὐ μόνον ἀπεγνωκότες εἰσὶ μὴ ἀδικεῖν, ἀλλὰ καὶ κεκελευκότες ταύτην τὴν δίκην λαμβάνειν·
Wherefore I, sirs, not only stand acquitted of wrongdoing by the laws, but am also directed by them to take this satisfaction: (1.27)

indirect command | negative
καὶ οὕτω σφόδρα ὁ νομοθέτης ἐπὶ ταῖς γαμεταῖς γυναιξὶ δίκαια ταῦτα ἡγήσατο εἶναι, ὥστε καὶ ἐπὶ ταῖς παλλακαῖς ταῖς ἐλάττονος ἀξίαις τὴν αὐτὴν δίκην ἐπέθηκε.
And so strongly was the lawgiver convinced of the justice of this in the case of wedded wives, that he even applied the same penalty in the case of mistresses, who are of less account. (1.31)

result clauses with indicative | ὥστε
εἴ τινα εἶχε ταύτης μείζω τιμωρίαν ἐπὶ ταῖς γαμεταῖς, ἐποίησεν ἄν.
If he had had any heavier punishment than this for the case of married women, he would have imposed it. (1.33)

past unreal conditionals
ἐὰν ταύτην τὴν αἰτίαν περὶ ἑαυτῶν λέγωσι καὶ ἐπὶ τούτῳ φάσκωσιν εἰς τὰς ἀλλοτρίας οἰκίας εἰσιέναι, οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἅψεται
If they plead this reason in their defence, and allege that they enter other men's houses for this purpose, nobody will touch them. (1.35)

future real conditionals
οἷς ὑμᾶς ἀξιῶ τὴν αὐτὴν γνώμην ἔχειν· εἰ δὲ μή, τοιαύτην ἄδειαν τοῖς μοιχοῖς ποιήσετε, ὥστε καὶ τοὺς κλέπτας ἐπαρεῖτε φάσκειν μοιχοὺς εἶναι,
I call upon you to support their opinion: otherwise, you will be giving adulterers such licence that you will encourage thieves as well to call themselves adulterers (1.35)

εἰ δὲ μή
τοιαύτην ἄδειαν τοῖς μοιχοῖς ποιήσετε, ὥστε καὶ τοὺς κλέπτας ἐπαρεῖτε φάσκειν μοιχοὺς εἶναι
you will be giving adulterers such licence that you will encourage thieves as well to call themselves adulterers; (1.36)

ὥστε | result clauses with indicative
κατηγοροῦσι γάρ μου ὡς ἐγὼ τὴν θεράπαιναν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ μετελθεῖν ἐκέλευσα τὸν νεανίσκον.
they accuse me of ordering the maid-servant on that day to go and fetch the young man. (1.37)

ὡς | the indicative in indirect speech
εἰ μὲν γὰρ λόγων εἰρημένων ἔργου δὲ μηδενὸς γεγενημένου μετελθεῖν ἐκέλευον ἐκεῖνον, ἠδίκουν ἄν· εἰ δὲ ἤδη πάντων διαπεπραγμένων καὶ πολλάκις εἰσεληλυθότος εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τὴν ἐμὴν ᾡτινιοῦν τρόπῳ ἐλάμβανον αὐτόν, σωφρονεῖν <ἂν> ἐμαυτὸν ἡγούμην·
For if I had bidden the girl fetch him, when words alone had been spoken and no act had been committed, I should have been in the wrong: but if, when once he had compassed all his ends, and had frequently entered my house, I had then used any possible means to catch him, I should have considered myself quite in order. (1.38)

past unreal conditionals | past real conditionals
ἐγὼ δέ, ὦ ἄνδρες, δίκαιον μὲν ἂν ποιεῖν ἡγούμην ᾡτινιοῦν τρόπῳ τὸν τὴν γυναῖκα τὴν ἐμὴν διαφθείραντα λαμβάνων·
Now I, sirs, could have held myself justified in using any possible means to catch the corrupter of my wife. (1.38)

circumstantial participles
εἰ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ νυκτὶ ἐγὼ ἐπεβούλευον Ἐρατοσθένει, πότερον ἦν μοι κρεῖττον αὐτῷ ἑτέρωθι δειπνεῖν ἢ τὸν συνδειπνήσοντά μοι εἰσαγαγεῖν; οὕτω γὰρ ἂν ἧττον ἐτόλμησεν ἐκεῖνος εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν.
if on that night I had designs on Eratosthenes, which was more to my advantage, —to go and take my dinner elsewhere, or to bring in my guest to dinner with me? For in the latter case that man would have been less likely to venture on entering my house. (1.40)

past unreal conditionals
καίτοιγε εἰ προῄδη, οὐκ ἂν δοκῶ ὑμῖν καὶ θεράποντας παρασκευάσασθαι καὶ τοῖς φίλοις παραγγεῖλαι, ἵν’ ὡς ἀσφαλέστατα μὲν αὐτὸς εἰσῄα (τί γὰρ ᾔδη εἴ τι κἀκεῖνος εἶχε σιδήριον;), ὡς μετὰ πλείστων δὲ μαρτύρων τὴν τιμωρίαν ἐποιούμην;
Yet if I had foreknown this, do you not think that I should have called up servants and passed the word to my friends, in order that I might have gone in myself with all possible safety, —for how could I tell whether he too had some weapon? —and so I might have had as many witnesses as possible with me when I took my vengeance? (1.41)

past unreal conditionals | ὡς
σκέψασθε δὲ παρ’ ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς οὕτως περὶ τούτου τοῦ πράγματος, ζητοῦντες εἴ τις ἐμοὶ καὶ Ἐρατοσθένει ἔχθρα πώποτε γεγένηται πλὴν ταύτης.
Consider this affair further in your own minds, asking yourselves whether any enmity has ever arisen before this between me and Eratosthenes. (1.43)

εἰ as whether
οὔτε συνῄδει κακὸν οὐδὲν ὃ ἐγὼ δεδιὼς μή τις πύθηται ἐπεθύμουν αὐτὸν ἀπολέσαι,
nor was he privy to any wrongdoing which I was so afraid of being divulged that I was intent on his destruction (1.43)

fear clauses with the subjunctive
οὔτε γὰρ συκοφαντῶν γραφάς με ἐγράψατο, οὔτε ἐκβάλλειν ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἐπεχείρησεν, οὔτε ἰδίας δίκας ἐδικάζετο, οὔτε συνῄδει κακὸν οὐδὲν ὃ ἐγὼ δεδιὼς μή τις πύθηται ἐπεθύμουν αὐτὸν ἀπολέσαι, οὔτε εἰ ταῦτα διαπραξαίμην, ἤλπιζόν ποθεν χρήματα λήψεσθαι·
For he had neither subjected me to slanderous impeachment, nor attempted to expel me from the city, nor brought any private suit against me, nor was he privy to any wrongdoing which I was so afraid of being divulged that I was intent on his destruction, nor, should I accomplish this, had I any hope of getting money from anywhere (1.44)

mixed conditionals
τί ἄν οὖν βουλόμενος ἐγὼ τοιοῦτον κίνδυνον ἐκινδύνευον, εἰ μὴ τὸ μέγιστον τῶν ἀδικημάτων ἦ ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ ἠδικημένος;
For what object, then, should I run so grave a risk, unless I had received from him the greatest of injuries? (1.45)

past unreal conditionals | μή
τοσούτου τοίνυν δεῖ ἢ λοιδορία ἢ παροινία ἢ ἄλλη τις διαφορὰ ἡμῖν γεγονέναι, ὥστε οὐδὲ ἑωρακὼς ἦ τὸν ἄνθρωπον πώποτε πλὴν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ νυκτί.
So far, indeed, from either abuse or a drunken brawl or any other quarrel having occurred between us, I had never even seen the man before that night. (1.45)

ὥστε | result clauses with indicative
οἱ γὰρ τοιαῦτα πράττοντες, ὁρῶντες οἷα τὰ ἆθλα πρόκειται τῶν τοιούτων ἁμαρτημάτων, ἧττον εἰς τοὺς ἄλλους ἐξαμαρτήσονται, ἐὰν καὶ ὑμᾶς ὁρῶσι τὴν αὐτὴν γνώμην ἔχοντας.
For those who behave in that way, when they see the sort of reward that is in store for such transgressions, will be less inclined to trespass against their neighbors, if they see that you also take the same view. (1.47)

future real conditionals
οἳ κελεύουσι μέν, ἐάν τις μοιχὸν λάβῃ, ὅ τι ἂν οὖν βούληται χρῆσθαι,
these bid a man, on catching an adulterer, to deal with him in whatever way he pleases, (1.49)

present general conditionals